What is MPLS Layer 2 VPN in networking?
10 mins read

What is MPLS Layer 2 VPN in networking?

In today’s increasingly remote-based work environment, Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) have become an essential part of networking. They provide a secure way to connect devices, networks, and systems across the globe, ensuring that data is transmitted securely and reliably. However, not all VPNs are created equal. In this article, we will explore MPLS Layer 2 VPNs, including how they differ from Layer 3 VPNs, how they work, and their advantages in a network infrastructure.

Understanding Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) in Networking

Before we can dive into MPLS Layer 2 VPNs, it is helpful to understand what VPNs are and how they work. At its core, a VPN creates a secure and private connection between two devices or networks over a public network like the internet. This is accomplished through the use of encryption and other security protocols, which protect the data being transmitted from interception or tampering.

VPNs are commonly used by businesses to allow employees to securely access company resources from remote locations. This is especially important for companies with a distributed workforce or those that rely on remote contractors. VPNs can also be used by individuals to protect their online privacy and security, particularly when using public Wi-Fi networks.

There are several types of VPNs, including remote access VPNs, site-to-site VPNs, and MPLS VPNs. Remote access VPNs allow individual users to connect to a private network from a remote location, while site-to-site VPNs connect entire networks together. MPLS VPNs use a combination of MPLS technology and VPN protocols to create a highly secure and scalable network infrastructure.

Layer 2 VPNs vs Layer 3 VPNs: What’s the Difference?

VPNs can be broadly categorized into two types: Layer 2 VPNs and Layer 3 VPNs. The main difference between the two is the layer of the OSI model where they operate. Layer 2 VPNs operate at the Data Link layer and are typically used to connect remote LANs, while Layer 3 VPNs operate at the Network layer and are used for connecting remote networks. In this article, we will focus on MPLS Layer 2 VPNs.

One of the advantages of Layer 2 VPNs is that they can support a wide range of protocols, including Ethernet, Frame Relay, and ATM. This makes them a versatile option for businesses that need to connect different types of networks. Additionally, Layer 2 VPNs can provide a high level of security, as they use encryption to protect data in transit.

See also  What is Port Mirroring in networking?

However, Layer 2 VPNs can also have some drawbacks. They can be more complex to set up and manage than Layer 3 VPNs, and they may not be as scalable. Additionally, Layer 2 VPNs can be more expensive than Layer 3 VPNs, as they require more hardware and resources to operate.

The Basics of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)

MPLS is a protocol used to label and route network traffic. It provides a faster and more efficient way to forward data packets than traditional routing protocols. MPLS uses labels to identify network traffic and forward it through a network. This label-based approach reduces the need for complex routing table lookups, speeding up the routing process and reducing network congestion.

MPLS is commonly used in large enterprise networks, as it allows for better traffic management and quality of service (QoS) control. With MPLS, network administrators can prioritize certain types of traffic, such as voice or video, over other types of traffic, ensuring that critical applications receive the necessary bandwidth and network resources. MPLS also enables the creation of virtual private networks (VPNs), which can securely connect remote offices or users to a company’s main network.

How MPLS Layer 2 VPN Works: A Step-by-Step Guide

To understand how MPLS Layer 2 VPNs work, let’s walk through a simple example. Imagine that two remote offices need to connect securely to share files and access resources. To accomplish this, the two offices would each have an MPLS router that is configured to connect to the VPN. The routers would establish a label-switched path (LSP) between them, allowing them to exchange data securely over the VPN.

Once the LSP is established, the routers would use a technique called “label swapping” to forward data packets between them. This means that each packet is assigned a label by the sending router, which is then used by the receiving router to determine how to forward the packet to its destination. This process is repeated for each packet, ensuring that all data is transmitted securely and efficiently over the VPN.

Advantages of Using MPLS Layer 2 VPN in Your Network Infrastructure

MPLS Layer 2 VPNs offer several advantages over traditional VPNs. One of the biggest advantages is the ability to connect remote LANs securely and efficiently, without the need for complex routing tables. MPLS also provides a high degree of scalability, making it well-suited for large-scale enterprise networks. Finally, MPLS can help reduce network congestion and improve performance, which can be particularly important for latency-sensitive applications like VoIP and video streaming.

See also  Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express (CUCME) Guide: Overview and Understanding

In addition to the above advantages, MPLS Layer 2 VPNs also offer better Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities. With MPLS, network administrators can prioritize traffic based on its importance, ensuring that critical applications receive the necessary bandwidth and resources. This can help prevent network congestion and ensure that important applications are not impacted by lower-priority traffic. Additionally, MPLS Layer 2 VPNs are highly secure, with built-in encryption and authentication features that help protect against unauthorized access and data breaches.

The Different Types of MPLS Layer 2 VPNs: Point to Point vs Multipoint

There are two main types of MPLS Layer 2 VPNs: point-to-point and multipoint. Point-to-point VPNs are used to connect two LANs over a secure tunnel, while multipoint VPNs can connect multiple LANs to a single router. Multipoint VPNs are typically used in hub-and-spoke network topologies, where one central site provides connectivity to multiple remote sites.

Point-to-point VPNs are often used in scenarios where two sites need to communicate with each other privately and securely. For example, a company with two offices in different locations may use a point-to-point VPN to connect their LANs and allow employees to access resources on both networks.

Multipoint VPNs, on the other hand, are useful in situations where there are multiple remote sites that need to connect to a central site. This can be particularly beneficial for companies with a large number of branch offices, as it allows them to consolidate their network infrastructure and reduce costs. Additionally, multipoint VPNs can provide a more efficient use of bandwidth, as data can be transmitted between multiple sites simultaneously.

MPLS vs IPsec: Which is the Best Choice for Your Network?

When it comes to VPNs, there are several different options to choose from. MPLS Layer 2 VPNs and IPsec VPNs are two of the most popular choices. While both offer secure and private connectivity, they differ in several key areas. MPLS VPNs are typically faster, more scalable, and better suited for large-scale enterprise networks, while IPsec VPNs are typically easier to configure and can be used to connect smaller networks.

Another important factor to consider when choosing between MPLS and IPsec VPNs is cost. MPLS VPNs can be more expensive due to the need for specialized hardware and dedicated circuits. On the other hand, IPsec VPNs can be set up using existing internet connections, making them a more cost-effective option for smaller businesses or organizations with limited budgets.

See also  Solving Switching Issues with Layered Networking: Understanding the Show Interface Command

Implementing MPLS Layer 2 VPN in Your Network: Common Challenges and Solutions

Implementing MPLS Layer 2 VPNs in your network can be a complex and challenging process. Some common challenges include ensuring compatibility with existing network infrastructure, configuring MPLS routers, and troubleshooting connectivity issues. To address these challenges, it’s important to have a clear and well-documented implementation plan in place and to work with experienced network engineers who understand the intricacies of MPLS Layer 2 VPNs.

Another challenge that organizations may face when implementing MPLS Layer 2 VPNs is managing the increased complexity of the network. With the addition of VPNs, there are more devices and connections to manage, which can lead to increased network congestion and potential security vulnerabilities. To mitigate these risks, it’s important to have a comprehensive network management strategy in place, including regular monitoring and maintenance.

Additionally, organizations may need to consider the impact of MPLS Layer 2 VPNs on their overall network performance. While VPNs can provide increased security and flexibility, they can also introduce additional latency and bandwidth constraints. To ensure optimal network performance, it’s important to carefully plan and test the implementation of MPLS Layer 2 VPNs, and to consider the potential impact on other critical network applications and services.

Understanding the Role of Service Providers in MPLS Layer 2 VPN Implementation.

Finally, it’s important to understand the role of service providers in MPLS Layer 2 VPN implementation. Many service providers offer MPLS VPN services, which can be a cost-effective way to implement MPLS in your network. Service providers can also provide expertise and support to help ensure a successful implementation and can help troubleshoot any issues that may arise.


MPLS Layer 2 VPNs provide a secure and efficient way to connect remote LANs and systems. They offer several advantages over traditional VPNs, including faster routing, better scalability, and improved performance. However, implementing MPLS Layer 2 VPNs can be a complex and challenging process, requiring careful planning and cooperation between network engineers and service providers.